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News

Can we get rid of gradient prefixes?

I recently realized that unprefixed gradients finally propagated to stable Chrome, and after tweeting about it, I decided to do some research on which browsers support unprefixed gradients, and what percentage of users needs them.

Currently, unprefixed gradients are supported in:

  • Chrome 26+
  • Firefox 16+
  • Opera 12.10+
  • IE10+

Lets have a look at which prefixes we actually need to use for gradients today.

-ms-

There was never a stable release of IE that supported -ms- prefixed gradients, those were only in preview versions (stable IE10 supports both prefixed and unprefixed gradients). So, -ms- is most definitely not required.

-moz-

Firefox versions >= 3.6 and < 16 account for 4% of the global user base*. This might or might not be significant, depending on how good the fallback is that these users will see. If the gradient only adds a subtle shadow or something like that, I’d say ditch -moz-. If it’s more crucial to the design & branding, it might be wise to still keep it. More tech-focused websites probably have a much lower percentage than 4%, so it might be a good idea to drop it there completely.

-o-

Opera unprefixed gradients in 12.10. Opera Mini never supported them. Opera versions < 12.10 currently account to a total of 0.25% of the global user base*. I’d say it’s safe to ditch -o- in gradients in most cases.

-webkit-

Chrome only very recently unprefixed gradients and Safari is a long way from doing so. Not to mention all the mobile browsers using WebKit. Unfortunately, we can’t ditch -webkit- in CSS gradients just yet.

My opinion

Don’t use -ms- prefixed gradients, there’s absolutely zero point in doing so. Include -moz- for the less subtle gradients. No significant need for -o- gradients. -webkit- is still needed and probably will be at least until the end of 2013. Or, of course, just use -prefix-free and don’t bother. 😛

Keep in mind that your stats might differ from global stats, so which prefixes you need to include might differ on a case by case basis. The purpose of this post is to alert you that maybe you don’t need all these prefixes, not to prescriptively tell you which ones to keep. Except -ms-, please don’t use that. There’s absolutely zero reason whatsoever.

Last but not least, no matter which prefixes you include, always have a good solid color fallback!

 

* Global market share statistics from StatCounter, for a 3 month period of January 2013 – March 2013. The graph on the website only displays the most popular browser versions, but downloading the CSV file gives you all of them.

Categories
News

Important -prefix-free update

Those of you that have been following and/or using my work, are surely familiar with -prefix-free. Its promise was to let you write DRY code, without all the messy prefixes, that would be standards-compliant in the future (which is why I’m always against adding proprietary features in it, regardless of their popularity). The way -prefix-free works is that it feature tests which CSS features are available only with a prefix, and then adds the prefix in front of their occurences in the code. Nothing will happen if the feature is supported both with and without a prefix or if it’s not supported at all.

This worked well when browsers implementations aren’t significantly different from the unprefixed, standard version. It also works fine when the newer and the older version use incompatible syntaxes. For example, direction keywords in gradients. The old version uses top whereas the new version uses to bottom. If you include both versions, the cascade does its job and ignores the latter version if it’s not supported:

background: linear-gradient(top, white, black);
background: linear-gradient(to bottom, white, black);

However, when the same syntax means different things in the older and the newer version, things can go horribly wrong. Thankfully, this case is quite rare. A prime example of this is linear gradient angles. 0deg means a horizontal (left to right) gradient in prefixed linear-gradients and a vertical (bottom to top) gradient in unprefixed implementations, since they follow the newer Candidate Recommendation rather than the old draft. This wasn’t a problem when every browser supported only prefixed gradients. However, now that IE10 and Firefox 16 are unprefixing their gradients implementations, it was time for me to face the issue I was avoiding ever since I wrote -prefix-free.

The solution I decided on is consistent with -prefix-free’s original promise of allowing you to write mostly standards-compliant code that will not even need -prefix-free in the future. Therefore, it will assume that your gradients use the newer syntax, and if only a prefixed implementation is available, it will convert the angles to the legacy definition. This means that if you update -prefix-free on a page that includes gradients coded with the older definition, they might break. However, they would break anyway in modern browsers, so the sooner the better. Even if you weren’t using -prefix-free at all, and had written all the declarations by hand before the angles changed, you would still have to update your code. Unfortunately, that’s the risk we all take when using experimental features like CSS gradients and I think it’s worth it.

-prefix-free will not take care of any other syntax changes, since when the syntaxes are incompatible, you can easily include both declarations. The angles hotfix was included out of necessity because there is no other way to deal with it.

Here’s a handy JS function that converts older angles to newer ones:

function fromLegacy(deg) { return Math.abs(deg-450) % 360 }

You can read more about the changes in gradient syntax in this excellent IEblog article.

In addition to this change, a new feature was added to -prefix-free. If you ONLY want to use the prefixed version of a feature, but still don’t want to write out of all the prefixes, you can just use -*- as a prefix placeholder and it will be replaced with the current browser’s prefix on runtime. So, if you don’t want to change your angles, you can just prepend -*- to your linear-gradients, like so:

background: -*-linear-gradient(0deg, white, black);

However, it’s a much more futureproof and standards compatible solution to just update your angles to the new definition. You know you’ll have to do it at some point anyway. 😉

Edit: Although -prefix-free doesn’t handle syntax changes in radial gradients, since the syntaxes are mutually incompatible, you may use this little PrefixFree plugin I wrote for the CSS Patterns Gallery, which converts the standard syntax to legacy syntax when needed:

StyleFix.register(function(css, raw) {
	if (PrefixFree.functions.indexOf('radial-gradient') > -1) {
		css = css.replace(/radial-gradient\(([a-z-\s]+\s+)?at ([^,]+)(?=,)/g, function($0, shape, center){
			return 'radial-gradient(' + center + (shape? ', ' + shape : '');
		});
	}

	return css;
});

Keep in mind however that it’s very crude and not very well tested.

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Replies

Better “CSS3 ticket-like tags”

Today I stumbled upon this tutorial, which from the screenshot, looked very interesting. So, I read on, and to my horror I noticed the author suggesting some questionable practices, the worst of which was using 3 HTML elements for every tag, including nonsense markup like <span class="circle"></span>.

So, I thought I’d take a chance at trying to recreate this effect without any extra markup. And it turned out to be quite easy, although using CSS gradients limits browser support a bit (IE10, Firefox 3.6+, Chrome, Safari 5.1).

They have the same disadvantage as the originals: They depend on the background color. However, unlike the originals, they come at less code, they’re scalable without changing a million values (as shown in the “bigger” section) and of course, no extra markup.

You can see the results in the fiddle below:

Disclaimer: webdesign tuts+ occasionally has some nice tutorials. I didn’t write this post to attack them in any way.

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Benchmarks

CSS gradients are faster than SVG backgrounds

Which is really sad, because SVG is awesome. It lets you do what CSS gradients do and much more, in quite a small filesize, as it’s just text too. However, the browser needs to generate a DOM for every SVG graphic, which results in sluggishness.

Here’s my test case

Mouse over the 2 divs. They both use a spotlight effect that’s dynamically updated according to the position of the mouse cursor. One of them does it with an SVG (through a data URI), the other one through a CSS radial gradient.

The test only works in Chrome, Firefox nightlies and perhaps IE10 (haven’t tested in Windows). Why? Because Opera doesn’t support radial gradients yet (however you can see how slow SVG is in it too), and Firefox before the nightlies used to have a bug with gradients in SVG through data URIs. Also, jsFiddle seems not to work in Webkit nightlies for some reason, but I’m too lazy right now to make a self-hosted test case.

Thanks a lot to Christian Krebs (lead developer of Opera Dragonfly) who inspired these tests after a discussion we had today regarding CSS gradient performance.

Edit: According to some commenters, they’re the same speed on Windows and Linux, so it could be an OSX issue. The only way to know for sure is to post more results, so go ahead and post yours!

Also, some commenters say that this is not a fair comparison, because it generates a new SVG every time. I have several arguments to reply to this:

  1. We also generate a new gradient every time, so it is fair.
  2. You can’t manipulate an SVG used for a background, so it’s not an option for backgrounds. JS doesn’t run in it and you don’t have access to its DOM. The only way to do that would be to use an inline SVG embedded in HTML and the element() CSS3 function. However, that’s only supported by Firefox, so not really a pragmatic option.
Categories
Original

Convert standard gradient syntax to -webkit-gradient and others

Screenshot of the demoI hate -webkit-gradient() with a passion. Its syntax is cumbersome and it’s really limited: No angle support, no <length>s in color stop positions, no implied color stop positions, no elliptical gradients… So, I was really happy, when Webkit implemented the standard syntax this January. However, we’re still stuck with the horrid -webkit-gradient() for quite a while, since older Webkit browsers that don’t support it are widely used at this time.

Today, I decided to finally spare myself the hassle of converting my standard gradient syntax to -webkit-gradient() by hand. Tasks like that shouldn’t be handled by a human. So, I coded a little script to do the chore. Hope it helps you too:
View demo

It currently only supports linear gradients, but I plan to add radial ones in the future. Also, when I get around to cleaning up the code a bit, I’ll add it on Github.

(Hope I didn’t leave in any very stupid bug, it’s really late here and I’m half asleep.)

Categories
Original

iPhone keyboard with CSS3 — no images

Yeap, this is yet another of those things that make no practical sense but are fun to make just to see whether it can actually be done. It’s also a proof of the fact that when I have too many things to do, I tend to procrastinate more. 😛

Here it is (resize the window to get the narrow version ;)):

http://lea.verou.me/demos/iphone-keyboard/

It should look correct in Firefox 3.6, Chrome 4 and Safari 4. It looks best on Firefox 3.6 due to it’s ability to render subpixel distances, whereas other browsers just round everything to the closest pixel. It also looks best in computers with Helvetica installed (it’s installed by default on macs btw) but it should look sufficiently OK with Arial too, since it’s a rip-off of Helvetica 😉 (the only problem with Arial is that the line-height of the buttons with the symbols will be slightly different since the custom font’s measurements are based on Helvetica Bold) Also, ironically, it doesn’t look ok in the iPhone!

For those of you that don’t use one of the aforementioned browsers as your primary and are way too bored to switch (or don’t even have them installed (!)), here are two screenshots from Firefox 3.6 (nicely cropped to only contain the keyboard):

Screenshot of the wide version
Screenshot of the narrow version